Refiling got the worldwide popularity, and in Russia in particular. Its essence lies in the substitution of incoming international traffic for local one, for charging at local rates and earnings on the difference in the cost of the call.
When transferring a call over long distances, it is possible "to land" it at a low cost, using the services of terminators. They are people who engaged in refiling, using the special-purpose equipment. Every week there are about 5-6 thousand numbers revealed, which are involved in redirecting international calls as local ones. Since this kind of business takes profit from the international GSM-operators (losses can reach tens of millions of euros per year) and is not taxed, most countries adopt appropriate legislation limiting the possibility of earning on the termination of international traffic.
For example, in Ukraine, the government rather strictly regulates this area, adhering to the principle of "technological neutrality". Working conditions in the telecommunications market are unified for all participants, regardless of the technology they apply. Due to the introduction of uniform requirements for network equipment, it is possible to separately pass each type of traffic - long distance, international and local. In Russia, by contrast, the state's attitude to the refiling is quite loyal. The market is liberalized because the government is no longer focused on increasing competition than in preventing the circumvention of the routing of international traffic. The terminators face a more acute problem of SIM-cards blocked by antifraud systems.
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In order to avoid losses due to refiling, Russian GSM-operators use special analytical and calling systems. The former analyzes the network activity in subscriber numbers and, if the card is active about 200 minutes per day, it is blocked within an hour and a half. The less traffic is terminated, the less locking risks are. If imitation of human behavior is successful, you can also bypass the antifraud.
In Russia, the calling systems are even faster. Regardless, whether a new SIM card or the card that has been active 3 is used for refiling, the calling system is going to block it within 10 seconds. The antifraud systems analyze the subscriber activity in an integrated fashion, and if at least one of the indicators of "humanity" is not correct, the number will be blocked. It should be noted that compared with other former Soviet countries, Russia applies a rather "loyal" antifraud. In some CIS countries, those, who are engaged in refiling, had to deal with numbers blocked within 10-20 minutes after SIM cards have been activated.
After the mass block the SIM-card inserted in the gateways, the FSB officers tracked them and confiscated equipment. At the same time, there are no criminal penalties for refiling in Russia.
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